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    IOTA Identification 1.0 is Right here

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    Discover IOTA Identification 1.0 on IOTA and Shimmer Now

    TL;DR:

    IOTA Identification 1.0 supplies a secure SSI implementation for Stardust-enabled networks. permitting straightforward integration for current and new apps that need to maximize digital autonomy and privateness for customers.

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    Final September, when the Stardust protocol improve and its tokenization framework have been launched to our staging community, Shimmer, we leveraged these developments to reinforce IOTA Identification โ€“ our decentralized id instrument. Following its launch on Shimmer, the following iteration of IOTA Identification underwent thorough testing and refinement. Now, with the profitable integration of the Stardust improve on IOTA, weโ€™re excited to introduce IOTA Identification 1.0 with its enhanced capabilities to the broader IOTA community.

    First launched in 2018, IOTA Identification is a decentralized id (DID) technique, recognized as did:iota, together with an related library. These parts leverage the distinctive attributes of the IOTA ledger, facilitating the seamless integration of digital identities into each new and current purposes. Whereas this submit supplies a abstract of knowledge launched alongside the debut of IOTA Identification 1.0 on Shimmer (see the weblog submit right here), it additionally highlights the newest enhancements based mostly on our insights into Identification since September of final yr.

    The technical revamp

    To align IOTA Identification with the Stardust model of the protocol, we now have fully rethought how identities must be created, up to date, and resolved. Leveraging the Stardust ledger’s capabilities, we have tailored Alias Outputs to signify identities, enabling interactions with different Layer 1 entities reminiscent of fungible and non-fungible tokens (NFTs).

    On a technical degree, DID paperwork are actually saved within the state metadata subject of Alias Outputs, making them accessible for decision throughout all nodes. This strategy makes use of Layer 1 entry management mechanisms for possession and permissions administration.

    Alias Outputs present 4 capabilities for internet hosting identities:

    • Globally Distinctive Identifier: Alias IDs canโ€™t be modified after creation, aligning completely with the immutable nature of DID identifiers. The DID accommodates the Alias ID, permitting seamless conversion between the 2. A easy instance: The final a part of the DID (the method-specific identifier) corresponds to the ID of the Alias Output (did:iota:0x0a6cf67b1faff3c4c9097ce91d84b1df490917b39a64a5b6ef30476ce4c528d3).
    • Information Storage: Outputs can retailer arbitrary knowledge, reminiscent of DID paperwork, of their state metadata.
    • Controller Administration: Solely the state controller can modify the Alias Output, successfully changing into the DID controller, and aligning with DID terminology.
    • Prolonged Capabilities: A DID inside an Alias Output inherits all of the capabilities of that output, together with token transactions and native asset minting. We discover these use instances in additional element under.

    Weโ€™ve additionally applied an on-chain revocation mechanism that may be embedded within the issuing celebrationโ€™s id. This ensures excessive availability throughout credential verification and simplifies processes by re-using the identical entry management mechanisms issuers use to replace their identities.

    Unlocking new prospects

    Representing identities by way of Alias Outputs on Layer 1 opens up thrilling interactions with different Layer 1 entities, resulting in progressive use instances. For every interplay, weโ€™ve supplied examples within the library, out there right here:

    • JavaScript/TypeScript: https://github.com/iotaledger/id.rs/tree/fundamental/bindings/wasm/examples
    • Rust: https://github.com/iotaledger/id.rs/tree/fundamental/examples
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    Identities controlling identities

    Alias Outputs can management different Alias Outputs, enabling one id to manipulate one other. This allows us to create hierarchies of identities and mannequin conditions like firm subsidiaries or human custodians. On this context, management is split between two events: the governor and the state controller. The governor decides who could make updates to an id by assigning a state controller, whereas the state controller determines how the id is represented by making modifications to the DID doc.

    For instance, think about a smartphone producer known as Phonemkr and its subsidiaries: Phoneshop, the place individuals should purchase telephones, and Phoneshippr, which ships the telephones. Phoneshop manages the id of Phoneshippr, however the producer (Phonemkr) desires final management over each.

    That is achieved by setting the tackle of an id’s Alias Output because the state controller or governor unlock situation of one other id. As we speak, the Alias Output can solely have a single state controller, however we intend to permit a number of controllers with future protocol updates. So in our instance, a number of controllers would permit each Phonemkr and Phoneshop to make updates to the id, offering extra flexibility.

    Authenticating transactions

    Identities can obtain, maintain, and ship tokens. This allows the sender and receiver of funds to be recognized, offering stronger assurances to everybody concerned.

    As a result of an Alias Output can maintain tokens, any DID may be transformed into an tackle. For example, if Alice exchanges DIDs with Bob and desires to ship him funds, Bob authenticates his DID to Alice. When Alice sends funds to Bob’s Alias Output tackle, she may be assured that whoever controls Bob’s id โ€“ usually Bob himself โ€“ will entry the funds.

    Conversely, if somebody receives funds from an Alias Output containing a DID, they will authenticate the origin of the funds, doubtlessly supporting anti-money laundering efforts. Observers can monitor fund actions, making it advisable to make use of totally different identities for varied use instances as a substitute of a single id for all interactions.

    An Alias Output’s tackle can function the Unlock Situation of any output, permitting the Alias Output to regulate the Primary Output and its funds. Funds are transferred by making a Primary Output managed by the receiverโ€™s Alias Output. This setup supplies a everlasting identifier to obtain funds whereas adhering to safety finest practices like key rotation, enabling the switch of funds to DIDs on Layer 1.

    DIDs issuing NFTs

    With the Stardust protocol improve, NFTs can now be minted and transferred on Layer 1 via devoted NFT Outputs, and DIDs might help show the id of the NFTโ€™s issuer.

    For instance, Phonemkr desires to problem digital product passports within the type of NFTs for every cellphone it sells. Phonemkr creates its id in an Alias Output and provably hyperlinks its DID to its web site, phonemkr.com. If Phonemkr points NFTs with its id because the issuer, it proves that phonemkr.com issued these NFTs.

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    Much like fund transfers, NFTs may be owned by and transferred to DIDs, because the Unlock Situation of an NFT Output may be an Alias Output representing a DID, offering assurances about whom you obtain NFTs from or ship NFTs to.

    Moreover, NFTs can unlock (learn โ€œpersonalโ€) identities. This might drastically profit entities or organizations represented and traded via NFTs (although isnโ€™t usually beneficial for people). This enables the switch of possession of an entity or group and its corresponding id in a single atomic interplay.

    DIDs issuing native tokens

    When a DID serves because the minter of native tokens, it supplies higher assurances and belief to token holders. With this info, token holders can confirm the origin of native tokens and validate claims made by the asset issuer.

    That is made potential as a result of native tokens are created via a Foundry Output managed by a single Alias Output. Embedding an Identification into this Alias Output allows the id of the minter to be resolved.

    Authenticating good contracts chains

    The Stardust protocol improve will allow the state of IOTA Good Contract (ISC) chains to be anchored into Alias Outputs within the ledger. With IOTA Identification, good contract chains may be provably linked to identities.

    As talked about earlier, identities may be organized hierarchically, enabling a single id to create and management a number of Alias Outputs. This implies an id inside an Alias Output can govern the Alias Output of an ISC chain. This lets customers determine the governor of a series and helps them resolve whether or not they need to belief and work together with the chain. It additionally lets exterior observers confirm and show who has final management of the chain.

    JSON Internet Token

    Because the SSI ecosystem converges on frequent requirements and codecs, we attempt to decide on probably the most succesful and interoperable applied sciences. Following that reasoning, we have transitioned to the JSON Internet Token (JWT) encoding for credentials and displays. This aligns with the newest proposals and proposals from regulatory initiatives within the EU. Credentials and displays are actually embedded in JWTs (a broadly used format for exchanging attributes and permissions) and should be saved and transmitted on this format.

    Weโ€™ve constructed the library in such a approach that various credentials codecs, just like the very promising Information Integrity Draft, may be applied alongside the present format shifting ahead.

    Key Storage Enhancements

    We reworked the storage interface to allow implementers to develop their very own options for storing delicate key materials. For superior necessities, the brand new interface ought to make it considerably simpler to adapt the library to current key administration options that provide the best degree of safety and sturdiness. To realize the mandatory flexibility, weโ€™ve divided the interface into two elements: one handles key storage and operations, whereas the opposite handles library-specific state.

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    As earlier than, we ship a default implementation of the interface utilizing Stronghold for Rust, permitting implementers to work shortly and securely. The default implementation permits implementers to handle keys, used for entry to the ledger, and identities to be saved (and backed up) in the identical Stronghold snapshot file, enhancing the ergonomics of key administration.

    Area Verification

    A major new characteristic in 1.0 is Area Title Verification, a course of that verifiably hyperlinks a website to an id. The hyperlink may be found both by ranging from the area or the id.

    An instance of ranging from the id is verifying the minter of an NFT. By inspecting an IOTA Layer 1 NFT, you’ll be able to uncover which Alias Output minted it. In flip, the Alias Output can comprise an id that may be linked to a website. By resolving the area, a verifier can affirm the cryptographic hyperlink and have faith that the entity that controls the area additionally issued the NFT, thereby confirming the authenticity of the NFT.

    Conversely, an instance ranging from the area is once you uncover identities linked to a homepage and set up a Web3 connection to an endpoint referenced within the linked id. By way of this hyperlink, you can begin from a trusted homepage and uncover linked company identities for future on- and off-chain interactions.

    Itโ€™s essential to notice that info revealed on-chain should be fastidiously evaluated to satisfy particular person wants for anonymity and compliance with knowledge privateness legal guidelines. Whereas firms might select to hyperlink their homepage to their digital id, people might favor to not create such hyperlinks to their private homepage.

    To maximise interoperability, our implementation follows a proposal developed by the Decentralized Identification Basis (DIF). The proposal makes the hyperlink from an id to a homepage elective, permitting identities to resolve how discoverable they need the linkage to be. To ascertain a hyperlink, the area proprietor must add a credential signed by the linked id to their area. Each the area and the id can comprise a number of hyperlinks, creating an online of trusted relationships between a number of domains (e.g. membership in skilled and non-profit organizations, hobbies, fan golf equipment, and so on.) and identities.

    In conclusion: the way forward for digital ID

    IOTA Identification 1.0 lays the muse for formidable id options for people, organizations, and objects. Leveraging the scalability of the IOTA Tangle and the flexibility of the Stardust ledger, we have created a novel ecosystem for each on- and off-chain interactions between cryptographic and self-sovereign id components.


    Hyperlinks on this article

    • Alias Outputs interplay on Layer 1: JavaScript/TypeScript instance
    • Alias Outputs interplay on Layer 1: Rust instance
    • IOTA Wiki article: Good Contract Chain Assist
    • WC3 Working Draft: Verifiable Credential Information Integrity 1.0
    • Decentralized Identification Basis proposal

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